Last updated on: 6/2/2022 | Author:


The background and pro and con arguments were written by staff based upon input from the following sources.


1.Peter Brookes, "Keeping the Embargo, O," Heritage Foundation,, Apr. 16, 2009
2.Angus Reid, "Most Americans Willing to Re-establish Ties with Cuba,", Feb. 6, 2012
3.Tony Karon, "Do We Really Need an Embargo Against Cuba?," TIME, Apr. 21, 2010
4.Mark P. Sullivan, "Cuba: Issues for the 112th Congress", Congressional Research Service,, Nov. 6, 2012
5.Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, "Fifty Years Later, Cuban Embargo Demonstrates US Solidarity with Cuban People,", Feb. 7, 2012
6."Cuban Democracy Act," Oct. 23, 1992
7.CCDHRN, "Comision Cubana De Derechos Humanos Y Reconciliacion Nacional,", June 14, 2012
8.Mark Silva and Tracy Wilkinson, "Obama Allows Unlimited Travel to Cuba by Relatives," LA Times, Apr. 14, 2009
9.US Department of State, "State Sponsors of Terrorism," (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)
10.US Department of State, "Chapter 3: State Sponsors of Terrorism,", July 31, 2012
11.The White House, "Open for Questions with President Obama,", Sep. 28, 2011
12.Oscar Espinosa Chepe, "Nuevamente el Show del Embargo,", Sep. 25, 2012
13.AFP, "Record Vote for UN Resolution Against Cuba Embargo,", Nov. 30, 2012
14.Merco Press, "Tourism Second Largest Contributor to Cuban Economy; 2.7 Million Expected in 2011,", Aug. 10, 2011
15.Marc Frank, "More Cubans Have Local Intranet, Mobile Phones,", June 15, 2012
16.Andrea Rodriguez, "Cuba Criticizes Microsoft Blocking Messenger,", May 30, 2009
17.AFP, "Citing Sanctions, Google Blocks Analytics Tool in Cuba,", June 20, 2012
18.BBC, "Pope Benedict Criticises US Trade Embargo on Cuba,", Mar. 28, 2012
19.US Chamber of Commerce, "International Agenda: Oppose Unilateral Economic Sanctions," (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)
20.Cuba Policy Foundation, "America's Farmers Bearing Heavy Burden for U.S. Embargo Against Cuba: New Report,", Jan. 28, 2002
21.John Hughes, "'Spring' Delayed as Cuba Follows China's Model," Christian Science Monitor, Apr. 9, 2012
22.Bill Clinton, "State on Signing the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996,", Mar. 12, 1996
23.Defense Intelligence Agency, "The Cuban Threat to U.S. National Security,", Nov. 18, 1997
24.American Association for World Health, "Denial of Food and Medicine: The Impact of the U.S. Embargo on the Health and Nutrition in Cuba,", Mar. 1997
25.Guillermo Grenier, "Panther Voices: Sentiment Toward Cuba Embargo Changing as Community Changes,", Feb. 10, 2012
26.Cuban Research Institute, "2011 Cuba Poll,", 2011
27.Carol J. Williams, "Widely Condemned U.S. Policy on Cuba Unlikely to Change Soon," Los Angeles Times, Nov. 16, 2012
28.Robert Wright, Three Nights in Havana: Pierre Trudeau, Fidel Castro and the Cold War World, June 1, 2010
29.Ann Louise Bardach, "How Cuban Repression Benefits Fidel Castro," Toronto Star, June 22, 2003
30.Michael Hutchison, "The U.S. Trade Embargo on Cuba: Lesson Plan," (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)
31.Natasha Del Toro, "Before the Revolution,", Aug. 1, 2007
32.History Channel, "Fidel Castro," (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)
33.John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, "The Bay of Pigs," (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)
34.Graham Allison, "The Cuban Missile Crisis at 50: Lessons for U.S. Foreign Policy Today,", July/Aug. 2012
35.John F. Kennedy, "Proclamation 3447 - Embargo on All Trade with Cuba,", Feb. 3, 1962
36.Department of the Treasury, "Cuban Assets Control Regulations,", Dec. 3, 2012
37.Humberto Corzo, "Lift the Cuba Embargo?," (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)
38.Pierre Salinger, "Great Moments: Kennedy, Cuba and Cigars," Cigar Aficionado, Autumn 1982
39.United States Diplomacy Center, "U.S. Interests Section Havana, Cuba," (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)
40.Guillermo Martinez and Helga Silva, "Carter Aides, Cubans Met Secretly," Miami Herald, Oct. 12, 1981
41.Aileen S. Yoo, "The Mariel Boatlift," Washington Post, Dec. 1998
42.John Adams and David W. Jones, "Is Cuba a State Sponsor of Terrorism? Let's Get Real, State Department,", Mar. 21, 2012
43.Oracle ThinkQuest, "The Soviet Union," (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)
44.PBS NOW, "Cuba/United States Timeline," (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)
45.Global Edge, "Cuba: Economy," (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)
46.Hartford Courant, "A More Realistic Policy Toward Cuba," Hartford Courant, Oct. 13, 1995
47.Taylor Branch, The Clinton Tapes: Wrestling History with the President, 2009
48.United States Code, "Cuba Democracy Act ('CDA')," (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)
49.One Hundred Fourth Congress of the United States of America, "Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996,", Jan. 3, 1996
50.PBS, "Cuban Discord & Helms-Burton,", July 19, 1996
51.Stephanie Hanson, "U.S.-Cuba Relations,", Jan. 11, 2010
52.Cuba Study Group, "Lifting Restrictions on Travel and Remittances to Cuba: A Case for Unilateral Action,", Dec. 10, 2008
53.GLASSBOOTHdotORG, "Barack Obama on Cuba Embargo,", Feb. 20, 2008
54.The White House Office of the Press Secretary, "Remarks by the President in an 'Open for Questions' Roundtable,", Sep. 28, 2011
55.Doug Bandow, "Time to End the Cuba Embargo,", Dec. 11, 2012
56.Ginger Thompson, "Restrictions on Travel to Cuba Are Eased," New York Times, Jan. 14, 2011
57.Andrew Quinn, "Castros Sabatoge Ending U.S. Cuba Enbargo: Clinton,", Apr. 9, 2010
58.Ronald D. Godard, "Explanation of Vote by Ambassador Ronald D. Godard, U.S. Senior Advisor for Western Hemisphere Affairs, on the Cuba Resolution in the General Assembly Hall,", Nov. 13, 2012
59.Jaime Suchlicki, "Don't Lift the Cuba Travel Ban,", Apr. 11, 2007
60.AP, "Bush: U.S. to Lift Key North Korea Sanctions,", June 26, 2008
61.Nick Miroff, "U.S. Travel to Cuba Grows as Restrictions Are Eased,", Feb. 6, 2012
62.Amy Maness, "Should We Trade with Cuba?,", Jan. 14, 2003, "Cuba's Economy," (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)
64.Richard E. Feinberg, "The New Cuban Economy: What Roles for Foreign Investment,", Dec. 2012
65.Morgan Neill, Pam Benson, and Shasta Darlington, "Cuba Quiet After Castro Announces Resignation,", Feb. 19, 2008
66.Robert Johnson, "END OF AN ERA: Castro Resigns From Party Leadership and Calls for Liberalization,", Apr. 19, 2011
67.Alain-Pierre Hovasse, "20 Years Since the Fall of the Soviet Union," The Atlantic, Dec. 23, 2011
68.Brandon Amash, "Evaluating the Cuban Embargo,", July 23, 2012
69.Office of Foreign Assets Control, "Cuba: What You Need to Know about US Sanctions Against Cuba," Jan. 24, 2012
70.Cuba Policy Foundation, "History of US Policy," (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)
71.US Department of State, "U.S. Relations with Cuba,", June 21, 2012
72.Ryan Villarreal, "Chile's Own 9/11: When the U.S. Backed a Brutal Dictator," International Business Times, Sep. 11, 2012
73.Mayra Gómez, Human Rights in Cuba, El Salvador, and Nicaragua: A Sociological Perspective on Human Rights Abuse, 2003
74.Phil Davison, "Cuba's American Refugees,", May 2, 1998
75.Peter Orsi, "Castro: Obama Is 'Stupid,'", Sep. 29, 2011
76.Amy Maness, "Should We Trade with Cuba?," National Center for Policy Analysis website, Jan. 14, 2003
77.Democracy Now!, "Bill Clinton on Sanctions with Cuba," interview with host Amy Goodman, available at globalpolicy,org, Nov. 8, 2000
78.Nick Mirodd, "U.S. Travel to Cuba Grows as Restrictions Are Eased,", Feb. 6, 2012
79.Amnesty International, "Annual Report 2011: Cuba," (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)
80.PBS, "Transcript: Distant Neighbors,", Sep. 20, 2002
81.Nick Miroff, "For Alan Gross, It's Hard Time in Havana,", Nov. 28, 2012
82.Ruth Ellen Wasem, "Cuban Migration to the United States: Policy and Trends," Congressional Research Service,, June 2, 2009
83.George Gedda, "Diplomat Recalls Cuba Break in 1961," Associated Press, available at, Jan. 1, 2001
84.Frances Robles, "Cuba Keeps More Political Prisoners per Capita," Associated Press, available at, July 8, 2007
85.Joint Corporate Committee on Cuban Claims, "Understanding US Claims," (accessed Dec. 20, 2012)
86.Reuters, "Cuban Commission for Human Rights and National Reconciliation: Political Detentions Rose in 2012,", Jan. 3, 2013
87.NorthStar News & Analysis, "U.S. Leads World in Rate of Incarceration,", Apr. 30, 2013
88.Peter James Spielmann, "UN General Assembly Votes against US Cuba Embargo," Associated Press, Oct. 29, 2013
89.BBC, "Cuban President Raul Castro to Retire in 2018,", Feb. 24, 2013
90.Peter Baker, "U.S. and Cuba, in Breakthrough, Will Resume Diplomatic Relations," New York Times, Dec. 17, 2014
91.Barack Obama, "Charting a New Course on Cuba,", July 1, 2015
92.Halimah Abdullah, "Obama Announces Embassy Deal with Cuba,", July 1, 2015
93.Oren Dorell, "Cuban Flag Flies at Embassy in Washington," USA Today, July 20, 2015
94.Halimah Abdullah, "American Flag Flies at Embassy in Cuba for First Time since 1961,", Aug. 14, 2015
95.Fox News Latino, "Cuba Arrests 90 Dissidents during Peaceful March; 'It's All [Obama's] Fault,' Protesters Say,", Aug. 10, 2015
96.Elliott Abrams, "John Kerry, George Shultz, and the Kerry Visit to Cuba,", Aug. 6, 2015
97.Nat Hentoff, "Normalizing U.S. Relations with Cuba Leads to Escalation in Repression of Cuban Dissidents,", Oct. 7, 2015
98.Agencia EFE, "Nine U.S. Governors Ask Congressional Leaders to End Cuban Embargo,", Oct. 15, 2015
99.Michelle Hackman, "Barack Obama Will Be the First Sitting President to Visit Cuba in 88 Years,", Feb. 18, 2016
100.Merrit Kennedy, "First U.S.-Cuba Commercial Flight in More Than 50 Years Has Landed,", Aug. 31, 2016
101.Alan Gomez, "Obama Lifts Restrictions on Cuban Rum, Cigars," usatoday, Oct. 14, 2016
102.Merrit Kennedy, "For First Time, U.S. Abstains on U.N. Resolution Criticizing Cuba Embargo,", Oct. 26, 2016
103.Barack Obama, "Statement by the President on Cuban Immigration Policy,", Jan. 12, 2017
104.Donald Trump, "President Trump Speaks and Participates in a Signing on the United States' Policy Towards Cuba,", June 16, 2017
105.White House, "Fact Sheet on Cuba Policy,", June 16, 2017
106.US Department of the Treasury, "Treasury, Commerce, and State Implement Changes to the Cuba Sanctions Rules,”, Nov. 8, 2017
107.White House, "President Donald J. Trump Is Taking a Stand for Democracy and Human Rights in the Western Hemisphere,", Apr. 17, 2019
108.US Department of State, "United States Restricts Travel and Vessels to Cuba,", June 4, 2019
109.U.S. Embassy Havana, "United States Restricts Scheduled Air Service to Cuban Airports,", Oct. 25, 2019
110.Patrick Oppmann and Maegan Vazquez, "With an Eye on a Tight Florida Race, Trump Announces New Restrictions on Cuban Hotels, Cigars, and Rum,", Sep. 23, 2020
111.Human Rights Watch, "World Report 2020: Cuba Events of 2019,", 2020
112.Congressional Research Service, "Cuba: U.S. Policy in the 116th Congress,", May 15, 2020
113.Carmen Sesin, "Majority of Cuban Americans Don't Think Embargo Works, but There's Slight Increase in Support,", Jan. 10, 2019
114.US Department of State, "Country Reports on Terrorism 2019: Cuba,", 2019
115.Matt Spetalnick, "Exclusive: U.S. Considers Returning Cuba to List of State Sponsors of Terrorism - Source,", May 14, 2020
116.Human Rights Watch, "World Report 2019: Cuba Events of 2018", 2020
117.Patrick Oppmann, "Cuba's National Assembly Announces Miguel Diaz-Canel as New President,", Apr. 19, 2018
118.Carmen Sesin, "Cuba Says U.S. Embargo Is 'Obstacle' to Getting Coronavirus-Fighting Supplies. Not So, Says U.S.,", Apr. 11, 2020
119.Edith M. Lederer, "UN Votes Overwhelmingly to Condemn US Embargo on Cuba,", Nov. 7, 2019
120.Morgan Babbs, "Robin Hoods of Internet Access in Cuba,", June 30, 2020
121.Brandon Conradis, "Trump Administration Names Cuba a 'State Sponsor of Terrorism,'", Jan. 11, 2021
122.Patrick Oppmann and Tatiana Arias, "Cubans Take to Streets in Rare Protests over Lack of Freedoms and Worsening Economy,", July 13, 2021
123.Patrick Oppmann, "After Historic Protests, Defiant Cubans Face Mass Trials,", July 29, 2021
124.Ernesto Londoño and Frances Robles, "Biden Ramps Up Pressure on Cuba, Abandoning Obama’s Approach,", Aug. 9, 2021
125.White House, "Statement by President Joseph R. Biden, Jr. on Continuing Crackdown in Cuba,", July 22, 2021
126.Patrick Oppmann, Marlon Sorto, and Valentina Di Donato, "Cuba’s Anti-government Protesters Sentenced Up to 30 Years behind Bars,", Mar. 17, 2022
127.Maria Abi-Habib and Eileen Sullivan, "Cuban Migrants Arrive to U.S. in Record Numbers, on Foot, Not by Boat,", May 3, 2022
128.Franco Ordoñez, "Biden Eases Restrictions on Cuban Travel and Remittances,", May. 16, 2022
129.Reuters, "US Lifts Cuba Flight Restrictions Imposed under Trump,", June 2, 2022
130.Juan Carlos Albizu-Campos Espiñeira and Sergio Díaz-Briquets, "Cuba and its Emigration: Exit as Voice,", Mar. 10, 2023
131.Reuters, “U.N. Votes To End Us Embargo on Cuba; Us and Israel Oppose,”, Nov. 2, 2023
132.Human Rights Watch, "World Report 2022: Cuba," (accessed Nov. 30, 2023)
133.Human Rights Watch, "Prison or Exile: Cuba’s Systematic Repression of July 2021 Demonstrators,", July 11, 2022
134.U.S. Department of State, "State Sponsors of Terrorism," (accessed Nov. 30, 2023)
135.UN News, "General Assembly Votes Overwhelmingly Against U.S. Cuba Embargo,", Nov. 2, 2023