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The background and pro and con arguments were written by ProCon.org staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):
  1. Peter Brookes, "Keeping the Embargo, O," Heritage Foundation, www.heritage.org, Apr. 16, 2009

  2. Angus Reid, "Most Americans Willing to Re-establish Ties with Cuba," www.angus-reid.com, Feb. 6, 2012

  3. Tony Karon, "Do We Really Need an Embargo Against Cuba?," TIME, Apr. 21, 2010

  4. Mark P. Sullivan, "Cuba: Issues for the 112th Congress" (1 MB) , Congressional Research Service, fpc.state.gov, Nov. 6, 2012

  5. Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, "Fifty Years Later, Cuban Embargo Demonstrates US Solidarity with Cuban People," www.foreignaffairs.house.gov, Feb. 7, 2012

  6. "Cuban Democracy Act" , Oct. 23, 1992

  7. CCDHRN, "Comision Cubana De Derechos Humanos Y Reconciliacion Nacional" , cubanet.org, June 14, 2012

  8. Mark Silva and Tracy Wilkinson, "Obama Allows Unlimited Travel to Cuba by Relatives," LA Times, Apr. 14, 2009

  9. US Department of State, "State Sponsors of Terrorism," www.state.gov (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)

  10. US Department of State, "Chapter 3: State Sponsors of Terrorism," www.state.gov, July 31, 2012

  11. The White House, "Open for Questions with President Obama," www.whitehouse.gov, Sep. 28, 2011

  12. Oscar Espinosa Chepe, "Nuevamente el Show del Embargo," www.cubaencuentro.com, Sep. 25, 2012

  13. AFP, "Record Vote for UN Resolution Against Cuba Embargo," www.google.com, Nov. 30, 2012

  14. Merco Press, "Tourism Second Largest Contributer to Cuban Economy; 2.7 Million Expected in 2011," en.mercopress.com, Aug. 10, 2011

  15. Marc Frank, "More Cubans Have Local Intranet, Mobile Phones," www.reuters.com, June 15, 2012

  16. Andrea Rodriguez, "Cuba Criticizes Microsoft Blocking Messenger," news.smh.com.au, May 30, 2009

  17. AFP, "Citing Sanctions, Google Blocks Analytics Tool in Cuba," www.google.com, June 20, 2012

  18. BBC, "Pope Benedict Criticises US Trade Embargo on Cuba," www.bbc.co.uk, Mar. 28, 2012

  19. US Chamber of Commerce, "International Agenda: Oppose Unilateral Econonic Sanctions," www.uschamber.com (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)

  20. Cuba Policy Foundation, "America's Farmers Bearing Heavy Burden for U.S. Embargo Against Cuba: New Report," www.cubafoundation.org, Jan. 28, 2002

  21. John Hughes, "'Spring' Delayed as Cuba Follows China's Model," Christian Science Monitor, Apr. 9, 2012

  22. Bill Clinton, "State on Signing the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996," www.presidency.ucsb.edu, Mar. 12, 1996

  23. Defense Intelligence Agency, "The Cuban Threat to U.S. National Security," www.fas.org, Nov. 18, 1997

  24. American Association for World Health, "Denial of Food and Medicine: The Impact of the U.S. Embargo on the Health and Nutrition in Cuba," www.cubasolidarity.net, Mar. 1997

  25. Guillermo Grenier, "Panther Voices: Sentiment Toward Cuba Embargo Changing as Community Changes," news.fiu.edu, Feb. 10, 2012

  26. Cuban Research Institute, "2011 Cuba Poll," cri.fiu.edu, 2011

  27. Carol J. Williams, "Widely Condemned U.S. Policy on Cuba Unlikely to Change Soon," Los Angeles Times, Nov. 16, 2012

  28. Robert Wright, Three Nights in Havana: Pierre Trudeau, Fidel Castro and the Cold War World, June 1, 2010

  29. Ann Louise Bardach, "How Cuban Repression Benefits Fidel Castro," Toronto Star, June 22, 2003

  30. Michael Hutchison, "The U.S. Trade Embargo on Cuba: Lesson Plan," www.pbs.org (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)

  31. Natasha Del Toro, "Before the Revolution," www.smithsonianmag.com, Aug. 1, 2007

  32. History Channel, "Fidel Castro," www.history.com (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)

  33. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, "The Bay of Pigs," www.jfklibrary.org (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)

  34. Graham Allison, "The Cuban Missile Crisis at 50: Lessons for U.S. Foreign Policy Today," www.foreignaffairs.com, July/Aug. 2012

  35. John F. Kennedy, "Proclamation 3447 - Embargo on All Trade with Cuba" , www.presidency.ucsb.edu, Feb. 3, 1962

  36. Department of the Treasury, "Cuban Assets Control Regulations," www.gpo.gov, Dec. 3, 2012

  37. Humberto Corzo, "Lift the Cuba Embargo?," www.cubanet.org (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)

  38. Pierre Salinger, "Great Moments: Kennedy, Cuba and Cigars," Cigar Aficionado, Autumn 1982

  39. United States Diplomacy Center, "U.S. Interests Section Havana, Cuba," www.diplomacy.state.gov (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)

  40. Guillermo Martinez and Helga Silva, "Carter Aides, Cubans Met Secretly," Miami Herald, Oct. 12, 1981

  41. Aileen S. Yoo, "The Mariel Boatlift," Washington Post, Dec. 1998

  42. John Adams and David W. Jones, "Is Cuba a State Sponsor of Terrorism? Let's Get Real, State Department," www.thehill.com, Mar. 21, 2012

  43. Oracle ThinkQuest, "The Soviet Union," www.library.thinkquest.org (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)

  44. PBS NOW, "Cuba/United States Timeline," www.pbs.org (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)

  45. Global Edge, "Cuba: Economy," globaledge.msu.edu (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)

  46. Hartford Courant, "A More Realistic Policy Toward Cuba," Hartford Courant, Oct. 13, 1995

  47. Taylor Branch, The Clinton Tapes: Wrestling History with the President, 2009

  48. United States Code, "Cuba Democracy Act ('CDA')," www.treasury.gov (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)

  49. One Hundred Fourth Congress of the United States of America, "Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity (LIBERTAD) Act of 1996" , www.gpo.gov, Jan. 3, 1996

  50. PBS, "Cuban Discord & Helms-Burton," www.pbs.org, July 19, 1996

  51. Stephanie Hanson, "U.S.-Cuba Relations," www.cfr.org, Jan. 11, 2010

  52. Cuba Study Group, "Lifting Restrictions on Travel and Remittances to Cuba: A Case for Unilateral Action," www.studygroup.org, Dec. 10, 2008

  53. GLASSBOOTHdotORG, "Barack Obama on Cuba Embargo," www.youtube.com, Feb. 20, 2008

  54. The White House Office of the Press Secretary, "Remarks by the President in an 'Open for Questions' Roundtable," www.whitehouse.gov, Sep. 28, 2011

  55. Doug Bandow, "Time to End the Cuba Embargo," www.cato.org, Dec. 11, 2012

  56. Ginger Thompson, "Restrictions on Travel to Cuba Are Eased," New York Times, Jan. 14, 2011

  57. Andrew Quinn, "Castros Sabatoge Ending U.S. Cuba Enbargo: Clinton," www.reuters.com, Apr. 9, 2010

  58. Ronald D. Godard, "Explanation of Vote by Ambassador Ronald D. Godard, U.S. Senior Advisor for Western Hemisphere Affairs, on the Cuba Resolution in the General Assembly Hall," www.usun.state.gov, Nov. 13, 2012

  59. Jaime Suchlicki, "Don't Lift the Cuba Travel Ban," www.frontpagemag.com, Apr. 11, 2007

  60. AP, "Bush: U.S. to Lift Key North Korea Sanctions," www.msnbc.com, June 26, 2008

  61. Nick Miroff, "U.S. Travel to Cuba Grows as Restrictions Are Eased," www.npr.org, Feb. 6, 2012

  62. Amy Maness, "Should We Trade with Cuba?," www.ncpa.org, Jan. 14, 2003

  63. GlobalSecurity.org, "Cuba's Economy," www.globalsecurity.org (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)

  64. Richard E. Feinberg, "The New Cuban Economy: What Roles for Foreign Investment," www.brookings.edu, Dec. 2012

  65. Morgan Neill, Pam Benson, and Shasta Darlington, "Cuba Quiet After Castro Announces Resignation," www.edition.cnn.com, Feb. 19, 2008

  66. Robert Johnson, "END OF AN ERA: Castro Resigns From Party Leadership and Calls for Liberalization," www.businessinsider.com, Apr. 19, 2011

  67. Alain-Pierre Hovasse, "20 Years Since the Fall of the Soviet Union," The Atlantic, Dec. 23, 2011

  68. Brandon Amash, "Evaluating the Cuban Embargo," www.prospectjournal.org, July 23, 2012

  69. Office of Foreign Assets Control, "Cuba: What You Need to Know about US Sanctions Against Cuba", Jan. 24, 2012

  70. Cuba Policy Foundation, "History of US Policy," www.cubafoundation.org (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)

  71. US Department of State, "U.S. Relations with Cuba," www.state.gov, June 21, 2012

  72. Ryan Villarreal, "Chile's Own 9/11: When the U.S. Backed a Brutal Dictator," International Business Times, Sep. 11, 2012

  73. Mayra Gómez, Human Rights in Cuba, El Salvador, and Nicaragua: A Sociological Perspective on Human Rights Abuse, 2003

  74. Phil Davison, "Cuba's American Refugees," independent.co.uk, May 2, 1998

  75. Peter Orsi, "Castro: Obama Is 'Stupid,'" huffingtonpost.com, Sep. 29, 2011

  76. Amy Maness, "Should We Trade with Cuba?," National Center for Policy Analysis website, Jan. 14, 2003

  77. Democracy Now!, "Bill Clinton on Sanctions with Cuba," interview with host Amy Goodman, available at globalpolicy,org, Nov. 8, 2000

  78. Nick Mirodd, "U.S. Travel to Cuba Grows as Restrictions Are Eased," npr.org, Feb. 6, 2012

  79. Amnesty International, "Annual Report 2011: Cuba," amnesty.org (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)

  80. PBS, "Transcript: Distant Neighbors," www.pbs.org, Sep. 20, 2002

  81. Nick Miroff, "For Alan Gross, It's Hard Time in Havana," globalpost.com, Nov. 28, 2012

  82. Ruth Ellen Wasem, "Cuban Migration to the United States: Policy and Trends" , Congressional Research Service, fas.org, June 2, 2009

  83. George Gedda, "Diplomat Recalls Cuba Break in 1961," Associated Press, available at fiu.edu, Jan. 1, 2001

  84. Frances Robles, "Cuba Keeps More Political Prisoners per Capita," Associated Press, available at freerepublic.com, July 8, 2007

  85. Joint Corporate Committee on Cuban Claims, "Understanding US Claims," www.certifiedcubanclaims.org (accessed Dec. 20, 2012)

  86. Reuters, "Cuban Commission for Human Rights and National Reconciliation: Political Detentions Rose in 2012," thecubaneconomy.com, Jan. 3, 2013

  87. NorthStar News & Analysis, "U.S. Leads World in Rate of Incarceration," thenorthstarnews.com, Apr. 30, 2013

  88. Peter James Spielmann, "UN General Assembly Votes Against US Cuba Embargo," Associated Press, Oct. 29, 2013

  89. BBC, "Cuban President Raul Castro to Retire in 2018," bbc.co.uk, Feb. 24, 2013

  90. Peter Baker, "U.S. and Cuba, in Breakthrough, Will Resume Diplomatic Relations," New York Times, Dec. 17, 2014

  91. Barack Obama, "Charting a New Course on Cuba," whitehouse.gov, July 1, 2015

  92. Halimah Abdullah, "Obama Announces Embassy Deal with Cuba," MSNBC.com, July 1, 2015

  93. Oren Dorell, "Cuban Flag Flies at Embassy in Washington," USA Today, July 20, 2015

  94. Halimah Abdullah, "American Flag Flies at Embassy in Cuba for First Time Since 1961," nbcnews.com, Aug. 14, 2015

  95. Fox News Latino, "Cuba Arrests 90 Dissidents during Peaceful March; 'It's All [Obama's] Fault,' Protesters Say," latino.foxnews.com, Aug. 10, 2015

  96. Elliott Abrams, "John Kerry, George Shultz, and the Kerry Visit to Cuba," cfr.org, Aug. 6, 2015

  97. Nat Hentoff, "Normalizing U.S. Relations with Cuba Leads to Escalation in Repression of Cuban Dissidents," cato.org, Oct. 7, 2015

  98. Agencia EFE, "Nine U.S. Governors Ask Congressional Leaders to End Cuban Embargo," latino.foxnews.com, Oct. 15, 2015

  99. Michelle Hackman, "Barack Obama Will Be the First Sitting President to Visit Cuba in 88 Years," vox.com, Feb. 18, 2016

  100. Merrit Kennedy, "First U.S.-Cuba Commercial Flight in More Than 50 Years Has Landed," npr.org, Aug. 31, 2016

  101. Alan Gomez, "Obama Lifts Restrictions on Cuban Rum, Cigars," usatoday, Oct. 14, 2016

  102. Merrit Kennedy, "For First Time, U.S. Abstains on U.N. Resolution Criticizing Cuba Embargo," npr.org, Oct. 26, 2016

  103. Barack Obama, "Statement by the President on Cuban Immigration Policy," whitehouse.gov, Jan. 12, 2017


Associated Press, "'Bright Future' Ahead? Cuba's Economic Changes Create New Entrepreneurs," www.msnbc.com, Jan. 3, 2012

"This Day in History: Cuban Dictator Batista Falls from Power," history.com (accessed Dec. 19, 2012)

The Week Editorial Staff, "5 Dictators the US Still Supports," theweek.com, Feb. 3, 2011

EFE, "Hundreds of Political Arrests in Cuba, Comission Reports," latino.foxnews.com, June 15, 2012

CCDHRN, "Cuba: Algunos Actos de Represion Politica Durante Septiembre de 2012," www.plantados.org, Oct. 2, 2012